Ilmenite is one of the main resources for obtaining titanium metal. Titanium has the characteristics of high strength, light texture, strong plasticity and high toughness, and is widely used in military and chemical industries. During beneficiation, due to the complex composition of titanium, there is very little single titanium, and most of it is ilmenite. But in addition, it also contains some other mineral elements, such as mica, nickel, chromium, zircon and so on. Therefore, in ilmenite beneficiation, it is more difficult. Next, taking mica-containing ilmenite as an example, the beneficiation process of mica-containing ilmenite is introduced.
The ilmenite is ilmenite produced in ultrabasic rocks and basic rocks, and its main component is ilmenite. The gangue minerals of the raw ore are mainly pyroxene, magnesium oxide, quartz and magnetite. Among them, the content of MgO is relatively high and MgO mainly exists in the form of mica.
Through analysis, the TiO2 content of the ilmenite is 8.5%, the Fe content is 13.5% and the MgO content is 3.5%. In order to obtain good titanium and iron concentrates, after mineral processing test analysis, a mineral processing process of crushing-coarse grinding-mixed pre-flotation-fine grinding-flotation-magnetic separation-gravity separation was designed for this ore.
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The crushing process of mica-containing ilmenite adopts a three-stage crushing process. The primary crushing process adopts jaw crushers, and the secondary and tertiary crushing processes use cone crushers. When the raw ore is fed into the first-stage jaw crusher for coarse crushing, the product is directly sent to the linear vibrating screen for screening. Qualified materials enter the secondary crushing stage, and unqualified materials are directly returned to coarse crushing by the belt conveyor. After the second-stage crushing is completed, it is directly fed into the third-stage crushing. When the mineral particle size meets 0-8mm, it is a qualified material, and it will directly enter a stage of grinding. The unqualified materials will directly return to the secondary crushing stage and continue to be crushed again.
The coarse grinding of mica-containing ilmenite adopts a one-stage grinding and grading process. The required equipment is a grid-type ball mill and a hydrocyclone. The crushed product is sent to a ball mill for coarse grinding, and the product is sent to a hydrocyclone for classification. The underflow grit is directly returned to the ball mill for regrinding, and the overflow product (mineral particle size P80 is 60-70μm) is ready to enter the mixed flotation process.
The mixed pre-flotation of mica-containing ilmenite includes mixed pre-rough flotation, mixed pre-fine flotation and three mixed pre-sweep flotation processes. After a stage of grinding and classification, the overflow product is sent to the mixed pre-rough flotation. The underflow concentrate from mixed pre-rough flotation is fed into mixed pre-fine flotation, and the froth tailings from mixed pre-rough flotation is fed into #1 mixed pre-sweep flotation. The foam tailings of #1 mixed pre-sweep flotation are fed into #2 mixed pre-sweep flotation, and the froth tailings of #2 mixed pre-sweep flotation are fed into #3 mixed pre-sweep flotation. The underflow concentrate from #3 hybrid pre-sweep flotation returns to #1 hybrid pre-sweep flotation. The underflow concentrate of #1 mixed pre-sweep flotation, the bottom flow concentrate of #2 mixed pre-sweep flotation and the froth tailings of mixed pre-finishing flotation are returned to the mixed pre-rough flotation, and the concentrate of mixed pre-finishing flotation is fed into fine sieve. #3 The tailings of mixed pre-sweep flotation are the tailings of mixed pre-flotation, which are included in the tailings of process tailings. In the mixed pre-flotation process, the flotation reagents used are mainly ethylenediamine and methyl isobutyl carbinol.
The concentrate obtained from the mixed pre-flotation will be sent to the fine grinding stage. The grinding adopts the second-stage grinding, which forms a closed circuit with the fine screen. The ground product is passed into a fine screen for sieving. The screen with a particle size greater than 0.1mm is sent to the rough flotation for magnesium removal. The bottom flow concentrate from magnesium removal rough flotation is sent to the second stage ball mill for regrinding. The ground product returns to the fine screen to form a closed circuit grinding. When the particle size P80 is 30-40μm, the under-sieve product is sent to the flotation of magnesium removal. The underflow concentrate of demagnesizing fine flotation is fed into deferrification weak magnetic separation.
The flotation of mica-containing ilmenite mainly includes two parts: rough flotation for magnesium removal and fine flotation for magnesium removal. Magnesium-containing rough flotation and magnesium-removed fine flotation can remove magnesium-containing coarse mica and fine mica respectively, and better titanium resources can be obtained.
Magnesium removal coarse flotation: After fine grinding, the product enters the flotation process for rough separation of magnesium ore. During flotation, add sulfuric acid pH regulator, ether amine collector and 2# oil foaming agent to complete the roughing operation.
Refined flotation for magnesium removal: Magnesium is roughed and then ground for fine selection. During flotation, ether amine collector collects magnesium to complete the selection.
The magnetic separation process is mainly to remove iron by magnetic separation. The weak magnetic separation method is used to feed the concentrate after demagnesification into the weak magnetic separator. When the magnetic field strength is 1800-2200GS, it can effectively remove magnetic impurities.
The main purpose of gravity separation of mica-containing ilmenite is to recover titanium. The process includes two-stage shaker, titanium rough flotation, titanium sweep flotation and four titanium fine flotation processes. The concentrate obtained after magnetic separation and iron removal is put into a shaker. After re-election, the product is sent to the second-stage shaker. The shaker concentrates of the two stages are fed into the flotation operation for titanium roughing. The tailings of the rougher underflow are swept, and the froth beneficiation products are subjected to four titanium beneficiation operations. Among them, the 4# selected underflow returns to the 2# selected operation, the 3# selected underflow is fed into the 1# selected operation, and the 2# selected underflow and 1# selected underflow and titanium sweeping foam products return to the titanium roughing In the process, the bottom flow of 4# selection is titanium concentrate.
The first-stage shaker tailings, the second-stage shaker tailings and titanium scavenging tailings directly enter the tailings dry discharge link for tailings throwing operations.
The mica-containing ilmenite is demagnesized through rough flotation for magnesium removal and fine flotation for magnesium removal. After deferrification and weak magnetic separation for deferrification ore separation, the removal rate of mica and iron is effectively guaranteed, and the effective recovery of titanium is guaranteed. Finally, the obtained TiO2 content is 46.30%, the Fe content is 23.62%, and the MgO content is 0.35%.
The above is the introduction of the process flow of the titanium beneficiation of the mica-containing ilmenite ore. In the actual concentrator, there are many kinds of mineral elements of titanium, and the mineral properties are complex. The relevant technological process cannot be selected only based on similar situations, but a suitable titanium ore beneficiation process plan should be designed according to the beneficiation test analysis, in order to effectively obtain high-quality titanium concentrate.